Forget What You Know About Good Study Habits (Published 2010) (2024)

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By Benedict Carey

Every September, millions of parents try a kind of psychological witchcraft, to transform their summer-glazed campers into fall students, their video-bugs into bookworms. Advice is cheap and all too familiar: Clear a quiet work space. Stick to a homework schedule. Set goals. Set boundaries. Do not bribe (except in emergencies).

And check out the classroom. Does Junior’s learning style match the new teacher’s approach? Or the school’s philosophy? Maybe the child isn’t “a good fit” for the school.

Such theories have developed in part because of sketchy education research that doesn’t offer clear guidance. Student traits and teaching styles surely interact; so do personalities and at-home rules. The trouble is, no one can predict how.

Yet there are effective approaches to learning, at least for those who are motivated. In recent years, cognitive scientists have shown that a few simple techniques can reliably improve what matters most: how much a student learns from studying.

The findings can help anyone, from a fourth grader doing long division to a retiree taking on a new language. But they directly contradict much of the common wisdom about good study habits, and they have not caught on.

For instance, instead of sticking to one study location, simply alternating the room where a person studies improves retention. So does studying distinct but related skills or concepts in one sitting, rather than focusing intensely on a single thing.

“We have known these principles for some time, and it’s intriguing that schools don’t pick them up, or that people don’t learn them by trial and error,” said Robert A. Bjork, a psychologist at the University of California, Los Angeles. “Instead, we walk around with all sorts of unexamined beliefs about what works that are mistaken.”

Take the notion that children have specific learning styles, that some are “visual learners” and others are auditory; some are “left-brain” students, others “right-brain.” In a recent review of the relevant research, published in the journal Psychological Science in the Public Interest, a team of psychologists found almost zero support for such ideas. “The contrast between the enormous popularity of the learning-styles approach within education and the lack of credible evidence for its utility is, in our opinion, striking and disturbing,” the researchers concluded.

Ditto for teaching styles, researchers say. Some excellent instructors caper in front of the blackboard like summer-theater Falstaffs; others are reserved to the point of shyness. “We have yet to identify the common threads between teachers who create a constructive learning atmosphere,” said Daniel T. Willingham, a psychologist at the University of Virginia and author of the book “Why Don’t Students Like School?”

But individual learning is another matter, and psychologists have discovered that some of the most hallowed advice on study habits is flat wrong. For instance, many study skills courses insist that students find a specific place, a study room or a quiet corner of the library, to take their work. The research finds just the opposite. In one classic 1978 experiment, psychologists found that college students who studied a list of 40 vocabulary words in two different rooms — one windowless and cluttered, the other modern, with a view on a courtyard — did far better on a test than students who studied the words twice, in the same room. Later studies have confirmed the finding, for a variety of topics.

The brain makes subtle associations between what it is studying and the background sensations it has at the time, the authors say, regardless of whether those perceptions are conscious. It colors the terms of the Versailles Treaty with the wasted fluorescent glow of the dorm study room, say; or the elements of the Marshall Plan with the jade-curtain shade of the willow tree in the backyard. Forcing the brain to make multiple associations with the same material may, in effect, give that information more neural scaffolding.

“What we think is happening here is that, when the outside context is varied, the information is enriched, and this slows down forgetting,” said Dr. Bjork, the senior author of the two-room experiment.

Varying the type of material studied in a single sitting — alternating, for example, among vocabulary, reading and speaking in a new language — seems to leave a deeper impression on the brain than does concentrating on just one skill at a time. Musicians have known this for years, and their practice sessions often include a mix of scales, musical pieces and rhythmic work. Many athletes, too, routinely mix their workouts with strength, speed and skill drills.

The advantages of this approach to studying can be striking, in some topic areas. In a study recently posted online by the journal Applied Cognitive Psychology, Doug Rohrer and Kelli Taylor of the University of South Florida taught a group of fourth graders four equations, each to calculate a different dimension of a prism. Half of the children learned by studying repeated examples of one equation, say, calculating the number of prism faces when given the number of sides at the base, then moving on to the next type of calculation, studying repeated examples of that. The other half studied mixed problem sets, which included examples of all four types of calculations grouped together. Both groups solved sample problems along the way, as they studied.

A day later, the researchers gave all of the students a test on the material, presenting new problems of the same type. The children who had studied mixed sets did twice as well as the others, outscoring them 77 percent to 38 percent. The researchers have found the same in experiments involving adults and younger children.

ImageForget What You Know About Good Study Habits (Published 2010) (1)

“When students see a list of problems, all of the same kind, they know the strategy to use before they even read the problem,” said Dr. Rohrer. “That’s like riding a bike with training wheels.” With mixed practice, he added, “each problem is different from the last one, which means kids must learn how to choose the appropriate procedure — just like they had to do on the test.”

These findings extend well beyond math, even to aesthetic intuitive learning. In an experiment published last month in the journal Psychology and Aging, researchers found that college students and adults of retirement age were better able to distinguish the painting styles of 12 unfamiliar artists after viewing mixed collections (assortments, including works from all 12) than after viewing a dozen works from one artist, all together, then moving on to the next painter.

The finding undermines the common assumption that intensive immersion is the best way to really master a particular genre, or type of creative work, said Nate Kornell, a psychologist at Williams College and the lead author of the study. “What seems to be happening in this case is that the brain is picking up deeper patterns when seeing assortments of paintings; it’s picking up what’s similar and what’s different about them,” often subconsciously.

Cognitive scientists do not deny that honest-to-goodness cramming can lead to a better grade on a given exam. But hurriedly jam-packing a brain is akin to speed-packing a cheap suitcase, as most students quickly learn — it holds its new load for a while, then most everything falls out.

“With many students, it’s not like they can’t remember the material” when they move to a more advanced class, said Henry L. Roediger III, a psychologist at Washington University in St. Louis. “It’s like they’ve never seen it before.”

When the neural suitcase is packed carefully and gradually, it holds its contents for far, far longer. An hour of study tonight, an hour on the weekend, another session a week from now: such so-called spacing improves later recall, without requiring students to put in more overall study effort or pay more attention, dozens of studies have found.

No one knows for sure why. It may be that the brain, when it revisits material at a later time, has to relearn some of what it has absorbed before adding new stuff — and that that process is itself self-reinforcing.

“The idea is that forgetting is the friend of learning,” said Dr. Kornell. “When you forget something, it allows you to relearn, and do so effectively, the next time you see it.”

That’s one reason cognitive scientists see testing itself — or practice tests and quizzes — as a powerful tool of learning, rather than merely assessment. The process of retrieving an idea is not like pulling a book from a shelf; it seems to fundamentally alter the way the information is subsequently stored, making it far more accessible in the future.

Dr. Roediger uses the analogy of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in physics, which holds that the act of measuring a property of a particle (position, for example) reduces the accuracy with which you can know another property (momentum, for example): “Testing not only measures knowledge but changes it,” he says — and, happily, in the direction of more certainty, not less.

In one of his own experiments, Dr. Roediger and Jeffrey Karpicke, who is now at Purdue University, had college students study science passages from a reading comprehension test, in short study periods. When students studied the same material twice, in back-to-back sessions, they did very well on a test given immediately afterward, then began to forget the material.

But if they studied the passage just once and did a practice test in the second session, they did very well on one test two days later, and another given a week later.

“Testing has such bad connotation; people think of standardized testing or teaching to the test,” Dr. Roediger said. “Maybe we need to call it something else, but this is one of the most powerful learning tools we have.”

Of course, one reason the thought of testing tightens people’s stomachs is that tests are so often hard. Paradoxically, it is just this difficulty that makes them such effective study tools, research suggests. The harder it is to remember something, the harder it is to later forget. This effect, which researchers call “desirable difficulty,” is evident in daily life. The name of the actor who played Linc in “The Mod Squad”? Francie’s brother in “A Tree Grows in Brooklyn”? The name of the co-discoverer, with Newton, of calculus?

The more mental sweat it takes to dig it out, the more securely it will be subsequently anchored.

None of which is to suggest that these techniques — alternating study environments, mixing content, spacing study sessions, self-testing or all the above — will turn a grade-A slacker into a grade-A student. Motivation matters. So do impressing friends, making the hockey team and finding the nerve to text the cute student in social studies.

“In lab experiments, you’re able to control for all factors except the one you’re studying,” said Dr. Willingham. “Not true in the classroom, in real life. All of these things are interacting at the same time.”

But at the very least, the cognitive techniques give parents and students, young and old, something many did not have before: a study plan based on evidence, not schoolyard folk wisdom, or empty theorizing.

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Forget What You Know About Good Study Habits (Published 2010) (2024)

FAQs

What are the 10 effective study habits? ›

Good study habits to develop
  • Find a good place to study.
  • Minimize distractions.
  • Take breaks.
  • Space out your studying.
  • Set study goals for each session.
  • Reward yourself.
  • Study with a group.
  • Take practice tests.
15 Sept 2022

What is study habits according to authors? ›

Study habit is an action such as reading,taking notes, holding study groups which the students perform regularly and habitually in order to accomplish the task of learning. Study habits can be described as effective or ineffective depending upon whether or not they serve the students well.

What are the 5 good study habits? ›

Five good study habits
  • Make a schedule. Number one on any list of study habits has to be making a schedule. ...
  • Create your environment. This one is so important while we're on lockdown. ...
  • Study in bursts. Treat your brain like a muscle. ...
  • Sleep. Of all the tips on this list, this could be the most important. ...
  • Find a study group.
6 Apr 2020

What are the 7 types of effective study habits? ›

7 Effective Study Habits for School
  • Establish a study area at home. ...
  • Communicate with the teacher. ...
  • Keep assignments organized. ...
  • Avoid procrastination. ...
  • Take notes in class. ...
  • Highlight key concepts in the reading materials. ...
  • Prepare your book-bag before going to bed.

What are the most common study habits? ›

6 Crucial Study Habits for College Students
  1. Find a Place to Study Regularly. Consistency is key when it comes to studying, so do your best to make a habit of it! ...
  2. Keep Track of Deadlines and Important Dates. ...
  3. Don't Cram for Your Exam. ...
  4. Organize a Study Group. ...
  5. Review Your Notes After Class. ...
  6. Ask for Help.
16 Aug 2018

How can students improve study habits? ›

10 Steps to Improve Your Study Skills
  1. Behavior modification can work for you. ...
  2. Do not study more than an hour at a time without taking a break. ...
  3. Separate the study of subjects that are alike. ...
  4. Do not study when you are tired. ...
  5. Prepare for your class at the best time. ...
  6. Use the best note-taking system for you.

Why is it important to have a good study habits? ›

Good study skills can increase your confidence, competence, and self-esteem. They can also reduce anxiety about tests and deadlines. By developing effective study skills, you may be able to cut down on the numbers of hours spend studying, leaving more time for other things in your life.

What is study habits and its importance? ›

Introduction. Study habits are commonly known as the usual behavior or habitual practices by a person in order to study and learn effectively. Study habits help students make their studies easier to understand and make their learning experience comfortable and enjoyable.

Why is it important to have a good academic performance? ›

Students are expected to spend much of their time on their education and need to graduate with good academic results. Academically good students have better employment benefits, higher income, higher self-esteem and self-confidence, low levels of anxiety and depression, and are less likely to engage in substance abuse.

What good study habits you can develop for virtual classes? ›

Ten successful online study habits
  • Take up bedtime studying. Rather than catching up Netflix, take time to review your study notes about an upcoming test. ...
  • Break up marathon study sessions. ...
  • Create a study schedule. ...
  • Connect with other focused students. ...
  • Clear your space. ...
  • Shut off technology. ...
  • Take your own notes. ...
  • Ask for help.

What are characteristics of good study habits? ›

Good study habits include many different skills: time management, self- discipline, concentration, memorization, organization, and effort. Desire to succeed is important, too.

How do you apply the 7 Habits of Effective People as a student? ›

  1. Habit One: Be Proactive.
  2. Habit Two: Begin with the End in Mind.
  3. Habit Three: Put First Things First.
  4. Habit Four: Think Win - Win.
  5. Habit Five: Seek First to Understand, Then to Be Understood.
  6. Habit Six: Synergize.
  7. Habit Seven: Sharpen the Saw.

What are the example of study habits? ›

Schedule specific times throughout the week for your study time. 3. Try to study at the same times each day. Studying at the same times each day establishes a routine that becomes a regular part of your life, just like sleeping and eating.

How will you improve your study habits during this pandemic? ›

When you need to study something important, consider The Magic of Monotasking. Focus on one thing at a time. Take breaks between tasks. Consider the “pomodoro method" to help you focus for 25- or 50-minute periods and then reward yourself with 5- or 10-minute breaks.

How do you intend to improve your effective study habits and overcome the effective ones Brainly? ›

Limit your study sessions to no more than 1 hour without a break- Actually, don't spend more than 20 to 30 minutes at a time memorizing something. The justification for taking such little breaks from studying is as follows.

How can you maintain or improve your study routine Brainly? ›

Explanation:
  1. Make a plan. '
  2. Keep everything organized in one place.
  3. Study according to your personal learning style.
  4. After studying, practice explaining what you've learned.
  5. Tap into the power of music.
6 Oct 2020

What study methods are most effective? ›

Utilize practice tests: Use practice tests or questions to quiz yourself, without looking at your book or notes. Make your own questions: Be your own teacher and create questions you think would be on a test. If you're in a study group, encourage others to do the same, and trade questions.

How do you motivate yourself to study? ›

Here are some ways to increase your motivation to study.
  1. Reward yourself for studying. ...
  2. Study with your friends. ...
  3. Remind yourself of your long-term goals. ...
  4. Eliminate distractions. ...
  5. Develop interest in what you have to study. ...
  6. Take breaks. ...
  7. Establish a comfortable environment. ...
  8. Establish reasonable goals for a study session.

How can you improve effective study habits and overcome the ineffective ones? ›

Banish your bad study habits
  1. Create a new habit in 66 days. Forming a new habit is all about repetition, Wood says. ...
  2. Embrace a routine. When developing a new habit, it's also important to tie it to a particular context, Wood says. ...
  3. Find a way to enjoy your work. ...
  4. Take breaks. ...
  5. Develop realistic goals. ...
  6. Turn off your smartphone.

How can I improve my memory and study skills? ›

Simple memory tips and tricks
  1. Try to understand the information first. Information that is organized and makes sense to you is easier to memorize. ...
  2. Link it. ...
  3. Sleep on it. ...
  4. Self-test. ...
  5. Use distributed practice. ...
  6. Write it out. ...
  7. Create meaningful groups. ...
  8. Use mnemonics.

What are the benefits of good study habits Brainly? ›

improved academic performance reduced stress better performance in extra-curricular activities remembering information an effective use of time.

What is the effect of study habits? ›

Study habit is different individual behavior in relation to studying3 and is a combination of study method and skill. In other words, study habits include behaviors and skills that can increase motivation and convert the study into an effective process with high returns, which ultimately increases the learning.

Is study important for success? ›

It helps to make the world a better place

As you gain your education, you'll be gaining a deeper understanding of what's right, wrong, fair and unfair. As you develop your reasoning and critical thinking skills, you'll be able to apply these skills to situations in your life.

What factors affect students study habits? ›

Some of these factors identified are intellectual ability, poor study habit, achievement motivation, lack of vocational goals, low self concept, low socio-economic status of the family, poor family structure and so on.

Why is it important to study essay? ›

Essay writing is an important part of studying for a degree for three reasons: (1) It increases understanding and helps the process of learning because it pushes you, amongst other things, to clarify and sort out ideas and information, to analyse source material and to exercise critical judgement.

How does habits affect our daily life? ›

The major psychological benefit that a habit provides us with is structure. "By and large, structure is important since it gives us a sense of rhythm in our lives," says Dr. Orme. "We don't do well with a lot of uncertainty, and we like to feel a sense of control.

How can student motivation improve performance? ›

A relative autonomous or self-determined motivation leads to a good study strategy and high study effort, which leads to better academic performance, i.e. the study strategy mediates the influence of motivation on academic performance.

Why is education important for success essay? ›

If you are more educated, it means that you are more productive. Good education gives you respect in society. It is an indication that you have more knowledge and you have better skills to do the job. Educated people are also good at judging other peoples they decision-making is better than uneducated people.

What is student motivation learning? ›

From a psycho-educational perspective, 'motivation to learn' has been described as a student's 'energy and drive to learn, work effectively and achieve to their potential', in addition to the behaviours associated with this energy and drive [5].

How can we maintain and improve study habit routine? ›

  1. PLAN A SCHEDULE OF BALANCED ACTIVITIES. ...
  2. PLAN ENOUGH TIME FOR STUDYING EACH SUBJECT. ...
  3. STUDY AT A SET TIME AND IN A CONSISTENT PLACE. ...
  4. STUDY AS SOON AFTER YOUR CLASS AS POSSIBLE. ...
  5. UTILIZE ODD HOURS DURING THE DAY FOR STUDYING. ...
  6. LIMIT YOUR STUDY TIME TO NO MORE THAN 2 HOURS ON ANY ONE COURSE AT ONE TIME.

How can students make the best use of their time when studying at home? ›

You can stretch, do a set of jumping jacks, walk around the room, and take a look at the view outside the window. Build in some social time during your day can motivate you to stay focused when studying. You can set a time when you are less productive to reach out to friends and family.

What are the action to do still have a good study habit Brainly? ›

This is Expert Verified Answer

Try not to do too much studying at one time. ... Try to study at the same times each day. ... Work on the assignment they find most difficult first. ... Review their notes before beginning an assignment.

How do you write a speech on the need for good study habits for successful performance in examination? ›

Answer:
  1. Get Organized. Between homework, tests, and extracurricular activities, it's all too easy for things to slip through the cracks. ...
  2. Know the Expectations. ...
  3. Designate a Study Area. ...
  4. Develop a Study Plan. ...
  5. Think Positively. ...
  6. Create a Study Group. ...
  7. Practice Active Listening. ...
  8. Review Test-Taking Strategies.
15 Mar 2020

Why is it important to practice 7 Habits of Highly effect? ›

The purpose of The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People is to help you lead your life in a truly effective way. They represent a proven process of personal and interpersonal growth that can have an immediate and lasting impact.

Why are the seven habits important? ›

Participants gain hands-on experience, applying timeless principles that yield greater productivity, improved communications, strengthened relationships, increased influence, and laser-like focus on critical priorities. The 7 Habits will help you: learn how to take initiative.

How can I be successful in school and life? ›

8 Steps to Academic Success
  1. Step 1: Set Goals. Goals help to keep you going by: ...
  2. Step 2: Have a Positive Attitude. ...
  3. Step 3: Manage Your Time. ...
  4. Step 4: Read Textbooks & Course Readings. ...
  5. Step 5: Attend your Lectures. ...
  6. Step 6: Record your Lecture Notes. ...
  7. Step 7: Prepare for Exams. ...
  8. Step 8: Write Your Exams.

What are 10 good habits for students? ›

10 Habits of Successful Students
  • Get Organized. Making a plan for what you're going to do and when you're going to do it will make sure you're always ahead of the curve - literally.
  • Don't multitask. ...
  • Divide it up. ...
  • Sleep. ...
  • Set a schedule. ...
  • Take notes. ...
  • Study. ...
  • Manage your study space.

What is study habits in research? ›

2. Study habit is different individual behavior in relation to studying3 and is a combination of study method and skill. 4. In other words, study habits include behaviors and skills that can increase motivation and convert the study into an effective process with high returns, which ultimately increases the learning.

What are the 7 types of effective study habits? ›

7 Effective Study Habits for School
  • Establish a study area at home. ...
  • Communicate with the teacher. ...
  • Keep assignments organized. ...
  • Avoid procrastination. ...
  • Take notes in class. ...
  • Highlight key concepts in the reading materials. ...
  • Prepare your book-bag before going to bed.

What are the 5 good study habits? ›

Five good study habits
  • Make a schedule. Number one on any list of study habits has to be making a schedule. ...
  • Create your environment. This one is so important while we're on lockdown. ...
  • Study in bursts. Treat your brain like a muscle. ...
  • Sleep. Of all the tips on this list, this could be the most important. ...
  • Find a study group.
6 Apr 2020

What are the actions to do to still have a good study habit in distracted by a lot of things at home? ›

How to Study Without Distractions – 10 Tips From the Experts
  • Keep distractions to a minimum.
  • Deal with hunger first.
  • Put the phone on do not disturb.
  • Find a spot that works for them.
  • Take frequent breaks.
  • Work in a space that works for everyone.
  • Create a routine to stay organized.
  • Make learning fun.
11 May 2020

What is study habits of students? ›

Study habits is how one studies. That is, the habits which students form during their school years. Without good study habits, a student cannot succeed.

What study methods are most effective? ›

Utilize practice tests: Use practice tests or questions to quiz yourself, without looking at your book or notes. Make your own questions: Be your own teacher and create questions you think would be on a test. If you're in a study group, encourage others to do the same, and trade questions.

What are the examples of ineffective study habits? ›

Bad Study Habits: Drop Them Now!
  • Cramming. Cramming goes hand-in-hand with procrastination. ...
  • Multitasking. ...
  • Missing Class. ...
  • Allowing Distractions. ...
  • Inefficient Note Taking. ...
  • Poor Time Management. ...
  • Eating Unhealthily. ...
  • Pulling All-Nighters.

Why are good study habits important? ›

Good study skills can increase your confidence, competence, and self-esteem. They can also reduce anxiety about tests and deadlines. By developing effective study skills, you may be able to cut down on the numbers of hours spend studying, leaving more time for other things in your life.

What are the effects of study habits on academic performance? ›

Study habit is different individual behavior in relation to studying3 and is a combination of study method and skill. In other words, study habits include behaviors and skills that can increase motivation and convert the study into an effective process with high returns, which ultimately increases the learning.

How will you improve your study habits during this pandemic? ›

When you need to study something important, consider The Magic of Monotasking. Focus on one thing at a time. Take breaks between tasks. Consider the “pomodoro method" to help you focus for 25- or 50-minute periods and then reward yourself with 5- or 10-minute breaks.

How do you motivate yourself to study? ›

Here are some ways to increase your motivation to study.
  1. Reward yourself for studying. ...
  2. Study with your friends. ...
  3. Remind yourself of your long-term goals. ...
  4. Eliminate distractions. ...
  5. Develop interest in what you have to study. ...
  6. Take breaks. ...
  7. Establish a comfortable environment. ...
  8. Establish reasonable goals for a study session.

How can I improve my memory and study skills? ›

Simple memory tips and tricks
  1. Try to understand the information first. Information that is organized and makes sense to you is easier to memorize. ...
  2. Link it. ...
  3. Sleep on it. ...
  4. Self-test. ...
  5. Use distributed practice. ...
  6. Write it out. ...
  7. Create meaningful groups. ...
  8. Use mnemonics.

How can I improve my study efficiency? ›

Here's how to be productive and effective, even when taking a few minutes away from your books.
  1. Don't work for more than an hour at a time. ...
  2. Stick to a plan. ...
  3. Save social media for your breaks. ...
  4. Go for a walk outside. ...
  5. Use a break to tidy and clean. ...
  6. Switch your study location. ...
  7. Spend some time with friends. ...
  8. Move your muscles.

How do you intend to improve your effective study habits and overcome the effective ones Brainly? ›

Limit your study sessions to no more than 1 hour without a break- Actually, don't spend more than 20 to 30 minutes at a time memorizing something. The justification for taking such little breaks from studying is as follows.

How can we avoid bad study habits? ›

Banish your bad study habits
  1. Create a new habit in 66 days. Forming a new habit is all about repetition, Wood says. ...
  2. Embrace a routine. When developing a new habit, it's also important to tie it to a particular context, Wood says. ...
  3. Find a way to enjoy your work. ...
  4. Take breaks. ...
  5. Develop realistic goals. ...
  6. Turn off your smartphone.

How does poor study habits impact the learners? ›

Similarly, students who head straight to work after high school may find that their bad study habits manifest themselves into poor work habits. Procrastination, poor time management, poor note taking and not completing assignments are poor study habits that high school students need to break before they graduate.

What are the benefits of good study habits Brainly? ›

improved academic performance reduced stress better performance in extra-curricular activities remembering information an effective use of time.

What factors affect students study habits? ›

Some of these factors identified are intellectual ability, poor study habit, achievement motivation, lack of vocational goals, low self concept, low socio-economic status of the family, poor family structure and so on.

How can you maintain or improve your study routine Brainly? ›

Explanation:
  1. Make a plan. '
  2. Keep everything organized in one place.
  3. Study according to your personal learning style.
  4. After studying, practice explaining what you've learned.
  5. Tap into the power of music.
6 Oct 2020

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